Abstract: Social systems are notoriously unfair. In this thesis, we focus on the distribution and structure of shared resources and activities. Through this lens, their extreme inequalities tend to roughly follow a universal pattern known as scale independence which manifests itself through the absence of a characteristic scale. In physical systems, scale-independent organizations are known to occur at critical points in phase transition theory. The position of this critical behaviour being very specific, it is reasonable to expect that the distribution of a social resource might also imply specific mechanisms. This analogy is the basis of this work, whose goal is to apply tools of statistical physics to varied social activities. As a first step, we show that a system whose resource distribution is growing towards scale independence is subject to two constraints. The first is the well-known preferential attachment principle, a mathematical principle roughly stating that the rich get richer. The second is a new general form of delayed temporal scaling between the population size and the amount of available resource. These constraints pave a precise evolution path, such that even an instantaneous snapshot of a distribution is enough to reconstruct its temporal evolution and predict its future states. We validate our approach on diverse spheres of human activities ranging from scientific and artistic productivity, to sexual relations and online traffic. We then broaden our framework to not only focus on resource distribution, but to also consider the resulting structure. We thus apply our framework to the theory of complex networks which describes the connectivity structure of social, technological or biological systems. In so doing, we propose that an important class of complex systems can be modelled as a construction of potentially infinitely many levels of organization all following the same universal growth principle known as preferential attachment. We show how real complex networks can be interpreted as a projection of our model, from which naturally emerge not only their scale independence, but also their clustering or modularity, their hierarchy, their fractality and their navigability. Our results suggest that social networks can be quite simple, and that the apparent complexity of their structure is largely a reflection of the complex hierarchical nature of our world.
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Bongard's work focuses on understanding the general nature of cognition, regardless of whether it is found in humans, animals or robots. This unique approach focuses on the role that morphology and evolution plays in cognition. Addressing these questions has taken him into the fields of biology, psychology, engineering and computer science.
Danforth is an applied mathematician interested in modeling a variety of physical, biological, and social phenomenon. He has applied principles of chaos theory to improve weather forecasts as a member of the Mathematics and Climate Research Network, and developed a real-time remote sensor of global happiness using messages from Twitter: the Hedonometer. Danforth co-runs the Computational Story Lab with Peter Dodds, and helps run UVM's reading group on complexity.
Laurent studies the interaction of structure and dynamics. His research involves network theory, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics along with their applications in epidemiology, ecology, biology, and sociology. Recent projects include comparing complex networks of different nature, the coevolution of human behavior and infectious diseases, understanding the role of forest shape in determining stability of tropical forests, as well as the impact of echo chambers in political discussions.
Hines' work broadly focuses on finding ways to make electric energy more reliable, more affordable, with less environmental impact. Particular topics of interest include understanding the mechanisms by which small problems in the power grid become large blackouts, identifying and mitigating the stresses caused by large amounts of electric vehicle charging, and quantifying the impact of high penetrations of wind/solar on electricity systems.
Bagrow's interests include: Complex Networks (community detection, social modeling and human dynamics, statistical phenomena, graph similarity and isomorphism), Statistical Physics (non-equilibrium methods, phase transitions, percolation, interacting particle systems, spin glasses), and Optimization(glassy techniques such as simulated/quantum annealing, (non-gradient) minimization of noisy objective functions).