Abstract: This paper describes a method for estimating the impact of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging on overhead distribution transformers, based on detailed travel demand data and under several different schemes for mitigating overloads by shifting PEV charging times (smart charging). The paper also presents a new smart charging algorithm that manages PEV charging based on estimated transformer temperatures. We simulated the varied behavior of drivers from the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey, and transformer temperatures based an IEEE standard dynamic thermal model. Results are shown for Monte Carlo simulation of a 25 kVA overhead distribution transformer, with ambient temperature data from hot and cold climate locations, for uncontrolled and several smart-charging scenarios. These results illustrate the substantial impact of ambient temperatures on distribution transformer aging, and indicate that temperature-based smart charging can dramatically reduce both the mean and variance in transformer aging without substantially reducing the frequency with which PEVs obtain a full charge. Finally, the results indicate that simple smart charging schemes, such as delaying charging until after midnight can actually increase, rather than decrease, transformer aging.
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Bongard's work focuses on understanding the general nature of cognition, regardless of whether it is found in humans, animals or robots. This unique approach focuses on the role that morphology and evolution plays in cognition. Addressing these questions has taken him into the fields of biology, psychology, engineering and computer science.
Danforth is an applied mathematician interested in modeling a variety of physical, biological, and social phenomenon. He has applied principles of chaos theory to improve weather forecasts as a member of the Mathematics and Climate Research Network, and developed a real-time remote sensor of global happiness using messages from Twitter: the Hedonometer. Danforth co-runs the Computational Story Lab with Peter Dodds, and helps run UVM's reading group on complexity.
Laurent studies the interaction of structure and dynamics. His research involves network theory, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics along with their applications in epidemiology, ecology, biology, and sociology. Recent projects include comparing complex networks of different nature, the coevolution of human behavior and infectious diseases, understanding the role of forest shape in determining stability of tropical forests, as well as the impact of echo chambers in political discussions.
Hines' work broadly focuses on finding ways to make electric energy more reliable, more affordable, with less environmental impact. Particular topics of interest include understanding the mechanisms by which small problems in the power grid become large blackouts, identifying and mitigating the stresses caused by large amounts of electric vehicle charging, and quantifying the impact of high penetrations of wind/solar on electricity systems.
Bagrow's interests include: Complex Networks (community detection, social modeling and human dynamics, statistical phenomena, graph similarity and isomorphism), Statistical Physics (non-equilibrium methods, phase transitions, percolation, interacting particle systems, spin glasses), and Optimization(glassy techniques such as simulated/quantum annealing, (non-gradient) minimization of noisy objective functions).