Abstract: Cascading outages can cause large blackouts, and a variety of methods are emerging to study this challenging topic. The Task Force on Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation, and Restoration of Cascading Failures, under the IEEE PES Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS), seeks to consolidate and review the progress of the field towards methods and tools of assessing the risk of cascading failure. This paper discusses the challenges of cascading failure and summarizes a variety of state-of-the-art analysis and simulation methods, including analyzing observed data, and simulations relying on various probabilistic, deterministic, approximate, and heuristic approaches. Limitations to the interpretation and application of analytical results are highlighted, and directions and challenges for future developments are discussed.
Abstract: This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the second of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. The first paper reviews the state of the art in methodologies for performing risk assessment of potential cascading outages. This paper describes the state of the art in cascading failure modeling tools, documenting the view of experts representing utilities, universities and consulting companies. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about presently available tools that deal with prediction of cascading failure events. This effort involves reviewing published literature and other documentation from vendors, universities and research institutions. The assessment of cascading outages risk evaluation is in continuous evolution. Investigations to gain even better understanding and identification of cascading events are the subject of several research programs underway aimed at solving the complexity of these events that electrical utilities face today. Assessing the risk of cascading failure events in planning and operation for power transmission systems require adequate mathematical tools/software.