Robustness and modular structure in networks
Network Science, 3, 509-525, 2015
Abstract: Complex networks have recently attracted much interest due to their prevalence in nature and our daily lives (Vespignani, 2009; Newman, 2010). A critical property of a network is its resilience to random breakdown and failure (Albert et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2000; Callaway et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2001), typically studied as a percolation problem (Stauffer & Aharony, 1994; Achlioptas et al., 2009; Chen & D'Souza, 2011) or by modeling cascading failures (Motter, 2004; Buldyrev et al., 2010; Brummitt, et al. 2012). Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society (Colizza et al., 2007; Vespignani, 2011; Balcan & Vespignani, 2011), can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes (Girvan & Newman, 2002). These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules (Palla et al. 2005; Ahn et al. 2010). Yet existing work on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates. If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory.
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Bongard's work focuses on understanding the general nature of cognition, regardless of whether it is found in humans, animals or robots. This unique approach focuses on the role that morphology and evolution plays in cognition. Addressing these questions has taken him into the fields of biology, psychology, engineering and computer science.
Danforth is an applied mathematician interested in modeling a variety of physical, biological, and social phenomenon. He has applied principles of chaos theory to improve weather forecasts as a member of the Mathematics and Climate Research Network, and developed a real-time remote sensor of global happiness using messages from Twitter: the Hedonometer. Danforth co-runs the Computational Story Lab with Peter Dodds, and helps run UVM's reading group on complexity.
Laurent studies the interaction of structure and dynamics. His research involves network theory, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics along with their applications in epidemiology, ecology, biology, and sociology. Recent projects include comparing complex networks of different nature, the coevolution of human behavior and infectious diseases, understanding the role of forest shape in determining stability of tropical forests, as well as the impact of echo chambers in political discussions.
Hines' work broadly focuses on finding ways to make electric energy more reliable, more affordable, with less environmental impact. Particular topics of interest include understanding the mechanisms by which small problems in the power grid become large blackouts, identifying and mitigating the stresses caused by large amounts of electric vehicle charging, and quantifying the impact of high penetrations of wind/solar on electricity systems.
Bagrow's interests include: Complex Networks (community detection, social modeling and human dynamics, statistical phenomena, graph similarity and isomorphism), Statistical Physics (non-equilibrium methods, phase transitions, percolation, interacting particle systems, spin glasses), and Optimization(glassy techniques such as simulated/quantum annealing, (non-gradient) minimization of noisy objective functions).