Abstract: Complex networks have recently attracted much interest due to their prevalence in nature and our daily lives (Vespignani, 2009; Newman, 2010). A critical property of a network is its resilience to random breakdown and failure (Albert et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2000; Callaway et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2001), typically studied as a percolation problem (Stauffer & Aharony, 1994; Achlioptas et al., 2009; Chen & D'Souza, 2011) or by modeling cascading failures (Motter, 2004; Buldyrev et al., 2010; Brummitt, et al. 2012). Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society (Colizza et al., 2007; Vespignani, 2011; Balcan & Vespignani, 2011), can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes (Girvan & Newman, 2002). These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules (Palla et al. 2005; Ahn et al. 2010). Yet existing work on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates. If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory.
Abstract: The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.
Abstract: Networks have become a key approach to understanding systems of interacting objects, unifying the study of diverse phenomena including biological organisms and human society. One crucial step when studying the structure and dynamics of networks is to identify communities: groups of related nodes that correspond to functional subunits such as protein complexes or social spheres. Communities in networks often overlap such that nodes simultaneously belong to several groups. Meanwhile, many networks are known to possess hierarchical organization, where communities are recursively grouped into a hierarchical structure. However, the fact that many real networks have communities with pervasive overlap, where each and every node belongs to more than one group, has the consequence that a global hierarchy of nodes cannot capture the relationships between overlapping groups. Here we reinvent communities as groups of links rather than nodes and show that this unorthodox approach successfully reconciles the antagonistic organizing principles of overlapping communities and hierarchy. In contrast to the existing literature, which has entirely focused on grouping nodes, link communities naturally incorporate overlap while revealing hierarchical organization. We find relevant link communities in many networks, including major biological networks such as protein-protein interaction and metabolic networks, and show that a large social network contains hierarchically organized community structures spanning inner-city to regional scales while maintaining pervasive overlap. Our results imply that link communities are fundamental building blocks that reveal overlap and hierarchical organization in networks to be two aspects of the same phenomenon.